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    Wikipedia Estland

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    Wikipedia Estland

    Datenschutz · Über Wikivoyage · Kontakt und Impressum · Nutzungsbedingungen · Klassische Ansicht. Energie wird in Estland größtenteils durch die großen Ölschiefervorkommen im 27 Wikipedia, Februar von aikido-bourgogne.com Estland ist die nördlichste der drei an der Ostsee liegenden baltischen Eintrag in der deutschsprachigen Wikipedia zum Thema "Estland".

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    Geographisch liegt Estland jedoch im Baltikum. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Name; 2 Geschichte. Offizielle Informationen über Tourismus in Estland und wichtige Fakten zu Kultur, Wetter, Tourismus, Einkaufen, Stadtplänen, Sehenswürdigkeiten und vielem. Estland ist die nördlichste der drei an der Ostsee liegenden baltischen Eintrag in der deutschsprachigen Wikipedia zum Thema "Estland".

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    Mai wurde daraufhin Estland in die EU aufgenommen. Estland [ˈeːstlant; ˈɛstlant] (estnisch Eesti [ ˈeːsʲti], amtlich Republik Estland, estnisch Eesti Vabariik) ist ein Staat im Baltikum. Als nördlichster der drei. Geographisch liegt Estland jedoch im Baltikum. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Name; 2 Geschichte. Datenschutz · Über Wikivoyage · Kontakt und Impressum · Nutzungsbedingungen · Klassische Ansicht. Estland gehört zu den drei baltischen Staaten. [aikido-bourgogne.coms Transaviabaltika) mit kleinen Propellermaschinen vom Typ [aikido-bourgogne.comdia.​org/wiki/.

    After the loss of its de facto independence for the Soviet Union, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile.

    In the peaceful Singing Revolution began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of de facto independence on 20 August The sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties.

    With a population of 1. Estonia is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy that was among the fastest-growing in the EU since its entry in Some historians believe he was directly referring to Balts i.

    The oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement , which was on the banks of the river Pärnu , near the town of Sindi , in south-western Estonia.

    The earliest human habitation during the Mesolithic period is connected to the Kunda culture , named after the town of Kunda in northern Estonia.

    At that time the country was covered with forests, and people lived in semi-nomadic communities near bodies of water. Subsistence activities consisted of hunting, gathering and fishing.

    The Bronze Age started around BC, and saw the establishment of the first hill fort settlements. The middle Iron Age produced threats appearing from different directions.

    Several Scandinavian sagas referred to major confrontations with Estonians, notably when "Estonian Vikings" defeated and killed the Swedish king Ingvar.

    In Yaroslav the Wise defeated Estonians and established a fort in modern-day Tartu. This foothold lasted until an Estonian tribe, the Sosols, destroyed it in , followed by their raid on Pskov.

    Estonia could be divided into two main cultural areas. The coastal areas of Northern and Western Estonia had close overseas contacts with Scandinavia and Finland , while inland Southern Estonia had more contacts with Balts and Pskov.

    In the early centuries AD, political and administrative subdivisions began to emerge in Estonia. Two larger subdivisions appeared: the parish Estonian: kihelkond and the county Estonian: maakond , which consisted of multiple parishes.

    A parish was led by elders and centered on a hill fort; in some rare cases a parish had multiple forts.

    Counties were independent entities and engaged only in a loose cooperation against foreign threats. There is little known of early Estonian pagan religious practices.

    Spiritual practices were guided by shamans , with sacred groves , especially oak groves, serving as places of worship.

    The German Livonian Brothers of the Sword , who had previously subjugated Livonians , Latgalians , and Selonians , started campaigning against the Estonians in , and over next few years both sides made numerous raids and counter-raids.

    A major leader of the Estonian resistance was Lembitu , an elder of Sakala County , but in the Estonians suffered a significant defeat in the Battle of St.

    Matthew's Day , where Lembitu was killed. In , a major revolt ejected the Germans and Danes from the whole of Estonia, except Reval , but the crusaders soon resumed their offensive, and in , Saaremaa was the last county to surrender.

    After the crusade, the territory of present-day Southern Estonia and Latvia was named Terra Mariana , but later it became known simply as Livonia.

    In , after suffering a major defeat , the Sword Brothers merged into the Teutonic Order becoming the Livonian Order. In , a major rebellion started, known as the St.

    The Teutonic Order finished suppressing the rebellion in , and the next year the Danish king sold his possessions in Estonia to the Order.

    During the crusade, Reval Tallinn was founded, as the capital of Danish Estonia, on the site of Lindanise. In Reval received full town rights and adopted the Lübeck law.

    Reval acted as a trade intermediary between Novgorod and Western Hanseatic cities, while Dorpat filled the same role with Pskov. Many guilds were formed during that period, but only a very few allowed the participation of native Estonians.

    The Reformation in Europe began in , and soon spread to Livonia despite opposition by the Livonian Order. During the 16th century, the expansionist monarchies of Muscowy , Sweden, and Poland—Lithuania consolidated power, posing a growing threat to decentralised Livonia weakened by disputes between cities, nobility, bishops, and the Order.

    The Livonian Order was decisively defeated in , prompting Livonian factions to seek foreign protection. The majority of Livonia accepted Polish rule, while Reval and the nobles of Northern Estonia swore loyalty to the Swedish king, and the Bishop of Ösel-Wiek sold his lands to the Danish king.

    Russian forces gradually conquered the majority of Livonia, but in the late s the Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish armies started their own offensives and the bloody war finally ended in with Russian defeat.

    In , the Polish-Swedish War broke out, causing further devastation. The protracted war ended in with Sweden gaining Livonia , including the regions of Southern Estonia and Northern Latvia.

    While serfdom was retained under Swedish rule, legal reforms took place which strengthened peasants' land usage and inheritance rights, resulting this period's reputation of the "Good Old Swedish Time" in people's historical memory.

    Printing presses were also established in both towns. In the s the beginnings of Estonian elementary education appeared, largely due to efforts of Bengt Gottfried Forselius , who also introduced orthographical reforms to written Estonian.

    The Estonian national awakening began in the s as the leading figures started promoting an Estonian national identity among the general populace.

    Its economic basis was formed by widespread farm buyouts by peasants, forming a class of Estonian landowners. In Johann Voldemar Jannsen started publishing the first Estonian language newspaper and began popularising the denomination of oneself as eestlane Estonian.

    The moderate wing led by Hurt focused on development of culture and Estonian education, while the radical wing led by Jacobson started demanding increased political and economical rights.

    In the late 19th century the Russification period started, as the central government initiated various administrative and cultural measures to tie Baltic governorates more closely to the empire.

    In the early 20th century Estonians started taking over control of local governments in towns from Germans.

    During the Revolution the first legal Estonian political parties were founded. An Estonian national congress was convened and demanded the unification of Estonian areas into a single autonomous territory and an end to Russification.

    During the unrest peasants and workers attacked manor houses. The Tsarist government responded with a brutal crackdown; some people were executed and hundreds more were jailed or deported to Siberia.

    In , after the February Revolution , the governorate of Estonia was expanded to include Estonian speaking areas of Livonia and was granted autonomy, enabling formation of the Estonian Provincial Assembly.

    However the Provincial Assembly established the Salvation Committee , and during the short interlude between Russian retreat and German arrival , the committee declared the independence of Estonia on 24 February , and formed the Estonian Provisional Government.

    German occupation immediately followed, but after their defeat in World War I the Germans were forced to hand over power to the Provisional Government on 19 November.

    Renewed Soviet attacks failed, and in spring, the Estonian army, in co-operation with White Russian forces, advanced into Russia and Latvia.

    After the collapse of the White Russian forces, the Red Army launched a major offensive against Narva in late , but failed to achieve a breakthrough.

    On 2 February , the Tartu Peace Treaty was signed between Estonia and Soviet Russia, with the latter pledging to permanently give up all sovereign claims to Estonia.

    In April , the Estonian Constituent Assembly was elected. The Constituent Assembly passed a sweeping land reform expropriating large estates, and adopted a new highly liberal constitution establishing Estonia as a parliamentary democracy.

    Päts, together with general Johan Laidoner and Kaarel Eenpalu , established an authoritarian regime well known as the " Era of Silence ", where the parliament was dissolved and the newly established Patriotic League became the only legal political party.

    Opposition candidates were allowed to participate, but only as independents, while opposition parties remained banned. Estonia joined the League of Nations in The pact's secret protocol divided Eastern Europe into spheres of influence, with Estonia belonging to the Soviet sphere.

    The Estonian government felt that it had no choice but to comply, and the treaty was signed on 28 September. On the same day, the airliner Kaleva was shot down by the Soviet Air Force.

    Feeling that resistance was hopeless, the Estonian government complied and, on the next day, the whole country was occupied.

    The USSR established a regime of oppression; most of the high-ranking civil and military officials, intelligentsia and industrialists were arrested, and usually executed soon afterwards.

    Soviet repressions culminated on 14 June with mass deportation of around 11, people to Siberia , among whom more than half perished in inhumane conditions.

    Soviet destruction battalions initiated a scorched earth policy. Political prisoners who could not be evacuated were executed by the NKVD. In July, German Wehrmacht reached south Estonia.

    Initially many Estonians were hopeful that Germany would help to restore Estonia's independence, but this soon proved to be in vain. Only a puppet collaborationist administration was established, and occupied Estonia was merged into Reichskommissariat Ostland , with its economy being fully subjugated to German military needs.

    Numerous forced labour camps were established where thousands of Estonians, foreign Jews, Romani , and Soviet prisoners of war perished.

    The Red Army reached the Estonian borders again in early , but its advance into Estonia was stopped in heavy fighting near Narva for six months by German forces, including numerous Estonian units.

    Thousands of Estonians opposing the second Soviet occupation joined a guerrilla movement known as Forest Brothers.

    The armed resistance was heaviest in the first few years after the war, but Soviet authorities gradually wore it down through attrition, and resistance effectively ceased to exist in the mids.

    In March about 20, Estonians were deported to Siberia. Collectivization was fully completed soon afterwards. The Soviet Union began Russification , with hundreds of thousands of Russians and people of other Soviet nationalities being induced to settle in Estonia, which eventually threatened to turn Estonians into a minority in their own land.

    The introduction of Perestroika in made political activity possible again, starting an independence restoration process known as the Singing Revolution.

    Over the next two years almost all other Soviet Republics followed the Estonian lead issuing similar declarations.

    Soviet authorities recognised Estonian independence on 6 September, and on 17 September Estonia was admitted into the United Nations.

    In radical economic reforms were launched for switching over to a market economy, including privatisation and currency reform.

    Estonia lies on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea immediately across the Gulf of Finland, on the level northwestern part of the rising East European platform between Estonia's number of islands and islets in the Baltic Sea is estimated at some 2,, and the country has 2, including those in lakes.

    Two of them are large enough to constitute separate counties: Saaremaa and Hiiumaa. Estonia has over 1, lakes. There are many rivers in the country.

    Estonia is situated in the northern part of the temperate climate zone and in the transition zone between maritime and continental climate.

    Estonia has four seasons of near-equal length. Average temperatures range from The average annual temperature in Estonia is 5.

    Snow cover, which is deepest in the south-eastern part of Estonia, usually lasts from mid-December to late March.

    Many species extinct in most of the European countries can be still found in Estonia. Mammals present in Estonia include the grey wolf , lynx , brown bear , red fox , badger , wild boar , moose , red deer , roe deer , beaver , otter , grey seal , and ringed seal.

    Critically endangered European mink has been successfully reintroduced to the island of Hiiumaa , and the rare Siberian flying squirrel is present in east Estonia.

    There are 6 national parks, nature reserves, and many other protection areas. Estonia is a unitary parliamentary republic. The unicameral parliament Riigikogu serves as the legislative and the government as the executive.

    Estonian parliament Riigikogu is elected by citizens over 18 years of age for a four-year term by proportional representation , and has members.

    Riigikogu's responsibilities include approval and preservation of the national government, passing legal acts, passing the state budget, and conducting parliamentary supervision.

    The Government of Estonia is formed by the Prime Minister of Estonia at recommendation of the President, and approved by the Riigikogu.

    The government, headed by the Prime Minister, represent the political leadership of the country and carry out domestic and foreign policy.

    Ministers head ministries and represent its interests in the government. Sometimes ministers with no associated ministry are appointed, known as ministers without portfolio.

    The head of the state is the President who has primarily representative and ceremonial role. The president is elected by the Riigikogu, or by a special electoral college.

    The President proclaims the laws passed in the Riigikogu, and has right to refuse proclamation and return law in question for a new debate and decision.

    If Riigikogu passes the law unamended, then the President has right to propose to the Supreme Court to declare the law unconstitutional.

    The President also represents the country in international relations. The Constitution of Estonia also provides possibility for direct democracy through referendum, although since adoption of the constitution in the only referendum has been the referendum on European Union membership in Estonia has pursued the development of the e-government , with 99 percent of the public services being available on the web 24 hours a day.

    In the most recent parliamentary elections of , five parties gained seats at Riigikogu. The Constitution of Estonia is the fundamental law, establishing the constitutional order based on five principles: human dignity, democracy, rule of law, social state, and the Estonian identity.

    The first instance are county courts which handle all criminal and civil cases, and administrative courts which hear complaints about government and local officials, and other public disputes.

    The second instance are district courts which handle appeals about the first instance decisions. Estonia is a unitary country with a single-tier local government system.

    Local affairs are managed autonomously by local governments. Since administrative reform in , there are in total 79 local governments, including 15 towns and 64 rural municipalities.

    All municipalities have equal legal status and form part of a county , which is a state administrative unit. The council appoints local government, headed by a mayor.

    For additional decentralization the local authorities may form municipal districts with limited authority, currently those have been formed in Tallinn and Hiiumaa.

    Separately from administrative units there are also settlement units : village, small borough, borough, and town.

    Generally, villages have less than , small boroughs have between —, boroughs and towns have over inhabitants. Estonia was a member of the League of Nations from 22 September , and became a member of the United Nations on 17 September Since the early s, Estonia has been involved in active trilateral Baltic states co-operation with Latvia and Lithuania, and Nordic-Baltic co-operation with the Nordic countries.

    The beginning of the attempt to redefine Estonia as "Nordic" was seen in December , when then Estonian foreign minister and President of Estonia from until Toomas Hendrik Ilves delivered a speech entitled "Estonia as a Nordic Country" to the Swedish Institute for International Affairs , [] with potential political calculation behind it being wish to distinguish Estonia from more slowly progressing southern neighbours, which could have postponed early participation in European Union enlargement for Estonia too.

    Relations with Russia remain generally cold, though there is some practical co-operation. The Estonian Defence Forces consist of land forces , navy , and air force.

    The current national military service is compulsory for healthy men between ages of 18 and 28, with conscripts serving 8 or month tours of duty, depending on their education and position provided by the Defence Forces.

    The planned wartime size of the Defence Forces is 60, personnel, including 21, personnel in high readiness reserve.

    The Estonian Defence League is a voluntary national defence organisation under management of Ministry of Defence. It is organized based on military principles, has its own military equipment, and provides various different military training for its members, including in guerilla tactics.

    The Defence League has 16, members, with additional 10, volunteers in its affiliated organisations. Estonia co-operates with Latvia and Lithuania in several trilateral Baltic defence co-operation initiatives.

    Estonia joined NATO in Since Estonia has participated in numerous international security and peacekeeping missions, including: Afghanistan , Iraq , Lebanon , Kosovo , and Mali.

    Beginning 1 January , Estonia adopted the euro and became the 17th eurozone member state. Because of the global economic recession that began in , the GDP of Estonia decreased by 1.

    The Estonian government made a supplementary negative budget, which was passed by Riigikogu. The revenue of the budget was decreased for by EEK 6.

    The country has been experiencing economic growth ever since. The unemployment rate in March was 6. Estonia's economy continues to benefit from a transparent government and policies that sustain a high level of economic freedom , ranking 6th globally and 2nd in Europe.

    A simplified tax system with flat rates and low indirect taxation, openness to foreign investment, and a liberal trade regime have supported the resilient and well-functioning economy.

    In , a stable currency, the kroon , was established. Mindre grupper blandt esterne har i lighed med flertallet af russere tilsluttet sig den russisk-ortodokse kirke, der imidlertid er delt i en estisk og en russisk kirke.

    En national estisk litteratur begyndte i midten af tallet, da Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald sammenskrev det estiske nationalepos " Kalevipoeg ".

    Republikken Estland. Eesti Vabariik estisk. Dialekterne Võro og Seto i Võrumaa amt ved siden af Estisk. Today the remaining 2.

    The ceded areas include most of the former Petserimaa and areas behind the Narva including Ivangorod Jaanilinn.

    Uddybende artikler: Estlands historie , Junideportationer og Martsdeportationer. Uddybende artikel: Estlands regering. Uddybende artikel: Estlands geografi.

    Uddybende artikel: Estlands demografi. Uddybende artikel: Estisk sprog. Uddybende artikel: Estlands kultur. Statistics Estonia. Endeemsetest taimeliikidest kasvavad Eestis saaremaa robirohi ja eesti soojumikas.

    Loopealne Keilas. Hajaasustus ja laiad metsased alad on võimaldanud ilveste , metssigade , pruunkarude ja põtrade karjakaupa säilimist teiste loomade seas.

    Eesti huntide arv on arvatavasti umbes Lindude hulgas on kaljukotkad ja valge-toonekured. Eestis on viis rahvusparki, neist suurim on Lahemaa Rahvuspark põhjarannikul.

    Soomaa Rahvuspark Pärnu lähedal on tuntud laiade märgalade tõttu. Matsalu Rahvuspargis on esindatud palju linnuliike.

    Eesti põhiseadus sätestab, et Eesti on iseseisev ja sõltumatu demokraatlik vabariik, kus kõrgeima riigivõimu kandja on rahvas.

    Kõrgeimat riigivõimu teostab rahvas hääleõiguslike kodanike kaudu Riigikogu valimise ja rahvahääletusega. Eesti Vabariik kuulub Euroopa Liitu , Schengeni ruumi ja euroalasse, mis tähendab seda, et Eesti Vabariik on vabatahtlikult loobunud oma suveräänsuse teatud osast nt oma monetaarpoliitikast ja rahaühikust ja nõustus täitma Euroopa Liidu õigusnorme.

    Vastavalt Riigikohtu selgitusele on Euroopa Liidu õigus Eesti jaoks ülimuslik, Eesti põhiseadusest saab kohaldada ainult seda osa, mis on Euroopa Liidu õigusega kooskõlas või reguleerib suhteid, mida Euroopa Liidu õigus ei reguleeri.

    Võimude lahususe printsiibi järgi on seadusandlik, täidesaatev võim ja kohtuvõim seatud üksteist tasakaalustama ning on seega teatud mõttes vastandlike huvidega.

    Eesti on parlamentaarne vabariik , kus seadusandlikku võimu teostab parlament Riigikogu , millel on liiget. Riigikogu liikmed valitakse neljaks aastaks.

    Riigikogu valib iga 5 aasta tagant presidendi. President on Eesti riigipea. President on Eesti riigikaitse kõrgeim juht ja ta kuulutab Eesti vastu suunatud agressiooni korral välja sõjaseisukorra ja mobilisatsiooni.

    Ühtlasi esindab ta riiki rahvusvahelises suhtlemises, kuulutab välja Riigikogu valimised, annab seadlusi ja algatab põhiseaduse muutmist.

    President nimetab Riigikohtu ettepanekul ametisse kohtunikud, nimetab ja vabastab valitsuse ja kaitseväe juhataja ettepanekul ametist kaitseväe juhtkonna, annab riiklikke autasusid, sõjaväelisi ja diplomaatilisi auastmeid ning nimetab ametisse kaitseväe ülemjuhataja.

    Valitsuse moodustamisel on määrav jõuvahekord Riigikogus. Valitsuse moodustab peaminister , kelle määrab ametisse president.

    Valitsuses on 15 liiget. Valitsuse määrab ametisse president pärast parlamendi heakskiitu. Täidesaatvat võimu teostab valitsus riigiasutuste abil, mille hulka kuuluvad ministeeriumid , ametid, inspektsioonid ja muud valitsusasutused.

    Eesti riigilipu värvid on sinine, must ja valge. Tavakäsitluse kohaselt esindavad need taevast, mulda ning eestlaste püüdlemist õnne ja valguse poole.

    Esimene sinimustvalge lipp õnnistati Eesti Üliõpilaste Seltsi lipuna Otepääl 4. Pärast Eesti Vabariigi loomist sai Eesti rahvuslipp ka riigilipuks.

    Eesti riigivapil on kuldsel kilbil kolm sinist sammuvat ja otsa vaatavat lõvi leopardi. Riigivapp kinnitati Neist esimene on Eesti Vabariigi esindustunnus ning teine põhiseadusliku riigivõimu tunnus [61].

    Suure vapi kilpi ümbritseb külgedelt ja alt kaks kilbi alaosas ristuvat kuldset tammeoksa. Eesti Vabariigi riigihümn on " Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm ".

    Hümni viisi lõi Soomes populaarseks muutunud laulule kirjutas Sajandi lõpuks oli see kinnistunud Eesti rahvushümnina ning seepärast ei hakatud seda ka Eesti iseseisvaks kuulutamise järel välja vahetama ega peetud tarvilikuks selle ametlikku kinnitamist.

    Riiklikele sümbolitele lisaks on valitud on ka Eesti rahvuslind suitsupääsuke , rahvuslill rukkilill , rahvuskala räim , rahvusloom hunt , rahvusliblikas pääsusaba , rahvuskivi paas jne.

    Pikk Hermann ja sinimustvalge Eesti lipp. Paas on Eesti rahvuskivi. Arvestuslike esialgsete numbrite järgi elas 1.

    Statistikaameti täpsustatud andmete alusel oli 1. Eesti elanike arv kasvab aeglaselt sisserände tõttu, mis korvab negatiivse loomuliku iibe. Loomulik iive kasvas Aastal oli loomulik iive erandina alates aastast viimase 20 aasta jooksul positiivne, [68] olles ka järgnevatel aastatel taas negatiivne.

    Eesti venelaste iive on eestlaste omast madalam, seega läbi loomuliku iibe muutuse kasvab aja jooksul eestlaste osatähtsus. Eesti elanikud on kohustatud registreerima oma elukoha rahvastikuregistris , kuid selle vastavust tegelikule ei kontrollita.

    Rahvastikuregistri andmed tuginevad kontaktandmete osas inimeste endi esitatud andmetele [69]. Peamiselt puudutab see maapiirkonnast suurtesse linnadesse, sh Tallinna, viimase kümne aasta jooksul elama asunuid.

    Riigikeel on eesti keel. Suurenemine on saavutatud tänu sellele, et mitte-eestlaste seas on eesti keele oskus rohkem kui kahekordistunud. Eesti keeles on kaks suuremat murderühma — põhjaeesti ja lõunaeesti murded.

    Mõnedes käsitlustes eristatakse kolmanda rühmana kirderanniku murdeid. Lõuna-Eestis räägitakse võru keelt , mida vahel peetakse eesti keele murdeks , vahel eraldiseisvaks keeleks.

    Nii varasemate hinnangute kui Narvas , Kohtla-Järvel , Sillamäel ja veel mõnes linnas on ülekaalus vene keele kõnelejad.

    Eesti kaitsejõud põhinevad kaitseväel , mis koosneb maaväest , mereväest ja õhuväest , ning vabatahtlikul sõjaväelisel ühendusel kaitseliidul.

    Kaitsejõudude tööd juhib ja planeerib Kaitseväe peastaap. Peastaabi peamine ülesanne on tagada kaitsejõude valmisolek riigi kaitsmiseks sõjalise tegevusega ning planeerib ja teostab Eestis operatsioone kõiki väeliike kaasates.

    Kaitseväe ülesandeks rahuajal on õhuruumi ja territoriaalvete järelevalve ja kontroll, pideva kaitsevalmiduse tagamine, ajateenijate väljaõpetamine ja reservvägede ettevalmistamine, üksuste ettevalmistamine ja osalemine rahvusvahelistel operatsioonidel ning tsiviilvõimude abistamine loodusõnnetuste või inimtegevuse tõttu aset leidnud katastroofide tagajärgede ja kriisisituatsioonide likvideerimisel.

    Ajateenistus Eestis on kohustuslik 18—aastastele meestele. Kutsealuste teenimisaeg on olenevalt väeliigist 8—11 kuud. Eesti Sõjaväe Sisu Pasi soomusmasin.

    Eesti on kõrge sissetulekuga [75] turumajanduslik riik. Eesti tähtsaimad kaubanduspartnerid on Soome, Rootsi ja Saksamaa.

    Eesti keskmine brutopalk oli Rahvuslik valuuta oli algul seotud Saksa margaga ja seejärel euroga. Alates 1. Varem on kasutusel olnud Eesti margad — ning pärast Keskpanga ülesandeid täidab Eesti Pank , mis on alates Nõnda on Eesti rahapoliitika integreeritud Euroala rahapoliitika osaks.

    Eesti maksusüsteem on valdavalt proportsionaalne : maksumäärad ei sõltu maksustatavast summast. Eesti Primaarenergia allikana domineeris Maailmas ainulaadsena põhineb Eesti energeetika põlevkivil.

    Näiteks Samas kritiseeritakse põlevkivi, kui taastumatu loodusvara , liiga aktiivset kasutust ja leitakse, et põlevkivisektor annab lõviosa Eesti jäätmetest ning CO 2 heitmest.

    Jäätmete hulgalt oli Eesti I jämförelse med andra tidigare sovjetrepubliker har Estland högst levnadsstandard.

    Estland var under medeltiden bas för Tyska orden. Efter oktoberrevolutionen i Ryssland utropade Estland den 24 februari självständighet, vilken befästes genom det estniska frihetskriget och erkändes av Ryssland genom fredsfördraget i Dorpat Tartu den 2 februari Detta ledde i förlängningen till att sovjetiska trupper ockuperade hela landet.

    Detta parlament proklamerade sedermera Estlands införlivning i Sovjetunionen. Sverige var bland de första länderna att erkänna Estland som en del av Sovjetunionen.

    Självständigheten erkändes av Sovjetunionen den 6 september Efter detta har det estniska parlamentet strävat mot integration med Västeuropa, vilket har lett till att landet blev medlem i Nato den 29 mars och i Europeiska unionen den 1 maj Estland blev medlem i OECD Den största floden är Narva.

    Se även städer i Estland. Estland är en republik och en parlamentarisk demokrati. Den nuvarande konstitutionen antogs och är republikens fjärde konstitution.

    Estland har varit ett pionjärland inom elektronisk röstning i val, och har denna möjlighet sedan för lokalvalen och sedan även i nationella val till Riigikogu.

    Väljare har därefter möjlighet att ändra sin elektroniska förhandsröst i vallokalen. Riigikogus ledamöter stiftar lagar, godkänner statsbudgeten och övervakar regeringens och de verkställande organens arbete, samt ratificerar internationella överenskommelser.

    Estlands president är landets statschef och har huvudsakligen ceremoniella och representativa plikter. All dies ist den Bürgern und dauerhaften Bewohnern von Estland schon länger online möglich.

    Geleitet wird das Projekt von Taavi Kotka , dem stellvertretenden Kanzler der Kommunikations- und Informationssysteme des Wirtschaftsministeriums und einem der Gründer von Skype , ebenfalls ein ursprünglich estnisches Produkt.

    Zu bekannten e-Residenten gehören u. Vor allem Unternehmer sollen Internetunternehmen gründen und somit Steuern in Estland zahlen können, wobei es komplizierte Fälle von Doppelbesteuerung geben könnte, wie der Ex-Finanzminister Estlands, Jürgen Ligi , zu bedenken gab.

    Trotz zahlreicher staatlicher Programme ist es noch nicht gelungen, die in der Zeit der Sowjetunion eingewanderten oder gezielt angesiedelten Einwohner nichtestnischer Nationalität vollständig zu integrieren.

    So haben etwa die Hälfte der russischsprachigen Einwohner Estlands noch keinen estnischen Pass. Andererseits nutzen auch viele einen Vorteil ihres Nichtbürgerausweises, der es ihnen ermöglicht, sowohl in die EU als auch nach Russland visafrei einreisen zu können.

    Im Durchschnitt verfügen die Esten im Vergleich zu der russischsprachigen Minderheit über ein höheres Einkommen.

    Esten sind in Leitungspositionen überproportional vertreten, Russischsprachige sind eher im Dienstleistungs- und Produktionsbereich beschäftigt.

    Mittlerweile lassen sich zahlreiche Nichtesten einbürgern. Das Einbürgerungsverfahren ist jedoch mit einem Sprachtest verbunden, den viele, vor allem ältere Russischsprachige, als unüberwindbare Hürde empfinden, da sie die estnische Sprache nie in genügendem Umfang gelernt haben.

    Viele jüngere Russischsprachige beherrschen hingegen Estnisch und tun sich mit dem Einbürgerungsverfahren leichter.

    In letzter Zeit bringen Russischsprachige vermehrt ihre Kinder in estnischsprachige Kindergärten und Schulen, um ihnen eine bessere Integration zu ermöglichen.

    Andererseits sprechen die Esten weniger Russisch , was die Kommunikation mit Geschäftspartnern aus Russland erschwert und so den russischsprachigen Einwohnern Estlands Beschäftigungsmöglichkeiten eröffnet.

    Von insgesamt etwa In Deutschland lebten etwa Esten. Die Mehrheit der Esten gehört keiner Konfession an.

    Religiöse Institutionen spielen nur noch für eine Minderheit der Bevölkerung eine Rolle. Traditionelle Religion der Esten ist der christliche Glaube in der Form des Luthertums , wie er in Skandinavien weit verbreitet ist.

    Davon sind:. Die zehn bedeutenden christlichen Kirchen und Gemeinschaften haben sich im Rat Christlicher Kirchen Estlands zusammengeschlossen.

    Eine Besonderheit bilden die etwa Altorthodoxen , die seit dem Jahrhundert vor der Verfolgung im russischen Kernland in die Randgebiete des Russischen Reiches flohen.

    Am estnischen Ufer des Peipussees gibt es zahlreiche von Altorthodoxen bewohnte Dörfer. Kleinere Gemeinden gibt es auch in Tallinn und Tartu.

    Zudem sind etwa Personen Mitglied der Zeugen Jehovas. Nach der Unabhängigkeit wurde Russisch als erste Fremdsprache durch Englisch ersetzt.

    Zum Teil beginnt der Englischunterricht bereits im Kindergarten. Nicht synchronisierte englischsprachige Fernsehsendungen fördern das Erlernen des Englischen erheblich.

    In Estland gibt es zwölf anerkannte Universitäten , davon sieben staatliche und fünf private Universitäten sowie 26 weitere Hochschulen.

    In vielen Schulen Tallinns gibt es elektronische Klassenbücher. Estnische Schüler gehörten damit zu den besten von allen teilnehmenden Ländern und erreichten zusammen mit Finnland den Spitzenwert unter den europäischen Nationen.

    Laut WHO hat Estland mit geschätzt Der Unterschied zwischen weiblicher und männlicher Lebenserwartung ist einer der höchsten der Welt. Die estnische Verwaltungsgliederung unterliegt folgender hierarchischen Einteilung:.

    Gemeinden sind weiter in Städte, Minderstädte alev , Siedlungen alevik und Dörfer küla untergliedert Siedlungsgliederung. Nach der Wiedererlangung der Unabhängigkeit organisierte Estland sein Gemeinwesen nach skandinavischem Vorbild völlig um: wenig Hierarchien, viel Transparenz der staatlichen Organe, moderne Kommunikationstechnik.

    Jedoch zeigt das Wirtschaftsmodell des Landes im Vergleich zu den skandinavischen Nachbarn, die eher auf Prinzipien der sozialen Marktwirtschaft setzen, marktliberale Züge.

    Nach der Überwindung der Russlandkrise ab weist die Wirtschaft aller drei baltischen Staaten ein hohes Wachstum auf, allerdings ausgehend von einem niedrigen Ausgangszustand nach der Krise.

    Die Finanzkrise machte sich in Estland bereits zum Jahresbeginn bemerkbar, ab dem zweiten Quartal lagen die BIP-Werte inflationsbereinigt unter denen des Vorjahres.

    Hauptgrund war vor allem die stark zurückgegangene Inlandsnachfrage Bausektor, Einzelhandel. Die Gesamtzahl der Beschäftigten wird für auf Aufgrund von Auswanderung und Alterung der Bevölkerung herrscht ein zunehmender Mangel an Arbeitskräften.

    Bis zum Beitritt des Landes zum Euro am 1. Januar lag der Leitkurs für die estnische Krone bei 15, pro Euro, was eine maximale Schwankungsbreite von gerundet 13,30 bis 17,99 Kronen bedeutete.

    Estland verpflichtete sich wie auch Litauen zu einer nachhaltigen Haushaltspolitik. Das Design der estnischen Euromünzen wurde in einer öffentlichen Wahl bestimmt.

    Die Einführung des Euro musste jedoch mehrfach verschoben werden und fand am 1. Januar statt. US-Dollar brachten. Estland hat mit Stand Euro wurden vor allem im Bereich Bankwesen und Telekommunikation getätigt.

    Dadurch bleibt auch die Zahlungsbilanz inkl. Wer keinen eigenen Rechner hat, darf gratis an einem von öffentlichen Terminals in Postämtern, Bibliotheken oder Dorfläden ins Netz.

    Alle Schulen sind online. Estland verfügt über die meisten Internetanschlüsse pro Kopf weltweit. Estland gibt an, das weltweit technologisch modernste Verwaltungssystem zu haben.

    Wikipedia Estland
    Wikipedia Estland Die Höhe der Gebühren kann, je nach Grenzübergang, unterschiedlich sein. Euro wurden vor VermГ¶gen Heino im Dpin Bankwesen und Telekommunikation getätigt. Ein Gegengewicht dazu bildeten baltische Studentenverbindungen und ab den er Jahren vor allem die Universität Tartu Dorpat. Estonian Gonzos Forces. Berghahn Books. Das Amt Friendsbingo.Ca Präsidenten ist hauptsächlich zeremonieller Natur. Relations with Russia remain generally cold, though there is some practical co-operation. The Geopolitics of Euro-Atlantic Integration 1 ed. See tõi Nõukogude Liidu väed Eestisse. Kõrgemad muusikakoolid rajati Eestisse alles iseseisvumise järgselt. März amerikanisches Englisch. Estonia has over 1, lakes. Samast filmist tulid ka sajandi filmimotiiv — Canasta Regeln Pdf silmad — ja sajandi filmipaar Bet Uk Arno ja Teele. The Livonian Order was decisively HГ¤ufigkeit Lottozahlen inprompting Livonian factions to seek foreign protection. Mõisamajanduse vajaduste ja talurahva vastupanu survel koostati mõisnike maapäevadel uued talurahvaseadused, mis kinnitati LiivimaalEestimaal ja Saaremaal The location itself was where the Estonian 2nd Air Cooles Date was situated prior to the Soviet occupation. Estland may refer to. Estland, the modern name for Estonia in several languages; Danish duchy of Estonia (Danish: Hertugdømmet Estland), a dominum directum of the King of Denmark from until in what is now Northern Estonia until it was sold and became. Total number of COVID cases in Estonia per 10, inhabitants as of 5 December Confirmed up to 25 per 10, Tallinn (/ ˈ t ɑː l ɪ n, ˈ t æ l ɪ n /; Estonian: [ˈtɑlʲˑinˑ]; names in other languages) is the capital, primate and the most populous city of aikido-bourgogne.comd in the northern part of the country, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea, it has a population of , in Estland [ ˈeːstlant; ˈɛstlant] (estnisch Eesti [ ˈeːsʲti ], amtlich Republik Estland, estnisch Eesti Vabariik) ist ein Staat im Baltikum. Als nördlichster der drei baltischen Staaten grenzt es im Süden an Lettland, im Osten an Russland sowie im Norden und Westen an die Ostsee. Estland (estniska: Eesti), officiellt Republiken Estland (Eesti Vabariik, från vaba, "fri", och riik, "stat"), är en republik i Baltikum, även Norden enligt vissa definitioner, i Nordeuropa. Landet gränsar till Lettland i söder, Ryssland i öster och har sjögräns mot Finland i norr och Sverige i väster. Estonia (Estonian: Eesti ()), officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a country on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea in Northern aikido-bourgogne.com is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, and to the east by Lake Peipus and aikido-bourgogne.com territory of Estonia consists of the Calling code: + Estland ligger på østkysten av Østersjøen med Finskebukta i nord, Russland i øst og Latvia sør. Landet er flatt og den gjennomsnittlige høyden er ikke høyere enn 50 meter, og det høyeste punktet i landet, Suur Munamägi, ligger i sørøst med meter. [trenger referanse] Grunnfjellet er dekket av et skikt kalkstein, sandstein og aikido-bourgogne.com i nord er preget av Flagg: Riksvåpen. Estland har et samlet areal på km², heraf vand km², landareal på km², og har et fugtigt fastlandsklima. Estland er en demokratisk, parlamentarisk republik, der er inddelt i 15 amter og 79 (siden 1. november ) kommuner, og dets hovedstad og største by er aikido-bourgogne.comndte regionale sprog: Võro, Setu.

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    Die Qualität dieses Verkehrsmittels hat beträchtlich unter der Privatisierung gelitten, so dass das öffentliche Hauptverkehrsmittel jetzt der Bus ist Strecken- und Fahrplanübersicht innerestnischer Regionalbusse.
    Wikipedia Estland
    Wikipedia Estland


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