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The only other Russian city with a similar organization was Pskov. Novgorod linked the river routes of Baltic, Byzantium, Central Asian regions, and all parts of European Russia and flourished as one of the most important trading centres of eastern and northern Europe.
Novgorod was one of the few areas of Rus not affected by the Mongol invasions. It was also an important cultural center, and the majority of monuments preserved in Russia from the 11th through the 14th century are those standing in Veliky Novgorod.
Towards the end of the 15th century Novgorod was defeated by the army of Ivan III , the prince of Moscow, and was included into the Grand Duchy of Moscow.
In , Ivan the Terrible , fearing treason, sent his army to sack the city. This event, known as the Massacre of Novgorod , had catastrophic consequences for the city, which lost the majority of its population and never recovered.
Additionally, in the beginning of the 17th century, during the Time of Troubles , as Novgorod was plundered by the Swedish army.
In , a separate Novgorod Governorate was established. It was subdivided into five provinces, and the current area of Novgorod Oblast was split between two of them— Novgorod and Velikiye Luki Provinces.
In , Velikiye Luki Province was transferred to newly established Pskov Governorate. In , Novgorod Governorate was transformed to Novgorod Viceroyalty , and in , Pskov Governorate was transformed to Pskov Viceroyalty.
In , both governorates were re-established. By the s, most of the area of current Novgorod Oblast belonged to Novgorod Governorate.
Before the 19th century, the areas around Novgorod were considerably better developed than the areas which are currently located in the center and the east of the oblast.
In , Moscow — Saint Petersburg Railway , the first long-distance railway in Russia, opened. It bypassed Novgorod as it was built on a straight line between Moscow and Saint Petersburg.
The railway construction lead to the development of the adjacent areas and eventually to creation of new towns such as Malaya Vishera , Okulovka , and Chudovo.
Later on, the railroads between Sonkovo and Saint Petersburg, as well as between Bologoye and Pskov , and a number of connecting lines, were constructed.
Novgorod oblast was an area of long and fierce battles, such as, for example, the Demyansk Pocket , or the Leningrad—Novgorod Offensive in , when the Soviet troops crossed the Volkhov River.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Novgorod CPSU Committee who in reality had the biggest authority , the chairman of the oblast Soviet legislative power , and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee executive power.
The Charter of Novgorod Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Novgorod Oblast is the province's standing legislative representative body.
The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it.
The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province.
The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
In the period when they were the most important authority in the oblast to , the following first secretaries were appointed:  .
Since , governors were sometimes appointed, and sometimes elected: . The main industrial enterprises in the oblast are four chemical plants, all located in Veliky Novgorod and specializing mostly in production of fertilizers, a metallurgical plant, also in Veliky Novgorod, producing copper, and a plant in Borovichi producing refractory materials.
The main specialization of agriculture in the oblast is cattle breeding with meat and milk production.
A number of large-scale farms are keeping pigs and poultry. Bee-keeping, as well as cultivating of crops and potatoes, are also present. Novgorod appeared as a site on one of the most important Middle-Age trade routes.
The importance of waterways has considerably diminished since those days, but Lake Ilmen , the Volkhov River , and lower courses of main tributaries of lake Ilmen—the Lovat, the Msta, the Polist, and the Shelon, as well as Lake Seliger , remain navigable.
The Saint Petersburg — Moscow Railway crosses the oblast from southeast to northwest. The major train stations are Okulovka , Malaya Vishera , and Chudovo.
In Chudovo, one railroad branches off south to Veliky Novgorod, and another one north to Volkhovstroy and eventually to Murmansk.
Another railway line, connecting Sonkovo and Mga , runs parallel to the first one north of it. A line between Okulovka and Nebolchi makes a connection between the two.
Additionally, Veliky Novgorod is connected by railway to Saint Petersburg and Luga. A railway crosses the south of the oblast as well, connecting Bologoye and Pskov via Parfino and Staraya Russa.
The Kushaverskoye peat narrow gauge railway for hauling peat operates in the Khvoyninsky District , and Tyosovo peat narrow gauge railway for hauling peat operates in the Novgorodsky District.
The road network is well developed within the oblast, though only a small number of roads cross borders with Tver Oblast west of Valday and Leningrad Oblast east of Lyubytino.
One highway of federal significance, M10 , which connects Moscow and Saint Petersburg, crosses the oblast, running through Valday, Kresttsy , and Veliky Novgorod there is a bypass of Veliky Novgorod.
Highways connect Veliky Novgorod with Pskov and with Velikiye Luki, among other destinations. Novgorod Airport and Krechevitsy Airport are both located around Veliky Novgorod, however, there are no regular passenger flights.
Novgorod Airport is basically abandoned. The oblast is administratively divided into three cities and towns under the oblast's jurisdiction Veliky Novgorod , Borovichi , and Staraya Russa and twenty-one districts.
Another seven towns Chudovo , Kholm , Malaya Vishera , Okulovka , Pestovo , Soltsy , and Valday have the status of the towns of district significance.
Population : , Census ,  down from , recorded by the Census ,  and further down from about , recorded in the Census.
Novgorod Oblast has the lowest population for any oblast in the European part of Russia. One of the reasons for the relatively low population density is that the area suffered heavily during World War II.
The population is Ethnic groups : Novgorod Oblast is relatively homogenous, with only five recognized ethnic groups of more than two thousand persons each at the time of the Census.
In the Census, the following ethnicities were most numerous: , Russians It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
According to a survey  Novgorod is one of the oldest Russian cities and was an important part of the Old Rus.
Like many Russian cities Novgorod preserved its own local characteristics of traditional Russian culture. Despite great damages, in particular, during World War II, a large amount of medieval monuments of art, archeology, and architecture survive.
Many of those are included into the World Heritage site Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings. The majority of them are operated by the Novgorod Museum Reserve.
The Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod is the oldest Christian church in Russia with the exception of the Caucasus area. Since Novgorod was not affected by the Mongol invasions, it keeps a fair share of pre-Mongol buildings , most of which are concentrated in the city of Veliky Novgorod and its immediate surroundings.
The only pre-Mongol building in Novgorod Oblast outside the Veliky Novgorod agglomeration is the Katholikon of the Transfiguration Cathedral in Staraya Russa, built in the end of the 12th century.
Novgorod has, furthermore, a large number of architectural monuments constructed in the 13th—14th centuries, of which the Church of the Transfiguration on Ilyina Street is a representative example.
Novgorod developed a distinct school of icon painting , which considerably affected not only the nearby Pskov and the Northern Russia which was dependent on Novgorod, but also in general the old Russian painting.
The oldest survived Novgorod icons are dated by the 12th century. Theophanes the Greek , one of the most notable old Russian artists, spent a part of his life in Novgorod, creating, in particular, frescoes in the Church of the Transfiguration on Ilyina Street.
The East Slavic instrument Gusli was first recorded in the north Russian regions around the era of Novgorodian Rus'.
The archaeological excavations in Novgorod and Staraya Russa unearthed over a thousand of birch bark manuscripts , used mostly to document various business issues.
Currently, these manuscripts serve as the main source on the everyday life in the ancient Russia. Many medieval chronicles originate from Novgorod, the first one being the Novgorod First Chronicle , which covers the period between and In 14th century the Slavic-Nordic pirates Ushkuiniks spread in the Russian north and later in many other regions of ancient Russia.
After Novgorod was subordinated to Moscow in the end of the 15th century, its cultural significance gradually diminished. However, Valday Iversky Monastery , founded in the 17th century, served as a major cultural center, and in the 18th—19th centuries many important figures of Russian history owned estates in Novgorod Governorate.
For example, generalissimo Alexander Suvorov , a Russian military commander notable for military operations against the Ottoman Empire and against the army of Napoleon in the late 18th century, owned the estate of Konchansko-Suvorovskoye , currently in Borovichsky District ,  and authors Gleb Uspensky and Nikolay Nekrasov owned summer houses in and near Chudovo.
In , the Millennium of Russia monument was erected in Novgorod to commemorate the thousand years of Rurik arrival to Novgorod.
The Gusli instrument was first recorded in 12th century in Novgordian Rus'. The Saint Sophia Cathedral of Novgorod was one of the first churches which introduced Onion domes .
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. First-level administrative division of Russia. Not to be confused with Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Russian. September Click [show] for important translation instructions.
View a machine-translated version of the Russian article. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia.
Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article.
You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation.
For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation. Oblast in Northwestern, Russia. Coat of arms. Main article: Administrative divisions of Novgorod Oblast.
Religion in Novgorod Oblast as of Sreda Arena Atlas   Russian Orthodoxy. President of the Russian Federation.
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